『Abductive Reasoning』

Douglas Walton

(2004年刊行,The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, xvi+303 pp., ISBN:0817314415版元ページ


Acknowledgments xi
Introduction xiii

1. Abductive, presumptive, and plausible arguments 1

Abductive inference 2
Peirce on the three types of reasoning 7
Peirce on the form of abductive inference 13
Scientific discovery and artificial intelligence 17
Abductive inference in legal evidence 22
Defeasible, plausible, and presumptive reasoning 26
Tentative definitions 31
Argumentation schemes 36
Araucaria as a tool for argument diagramming 43

2. A dialogue model of explanation 51

Types of explanation 52
Models of scientific explanation 56
Simulation, understanding, and making sense 60
Scripts, anchored narratives, and implicatures 66
The dialogue model of explanation 71
The speech act of explanation 78
Dialogue models of scientific argumentation and explanation 82
Examination dialogue and shared understanding 88
Dialectical shifts and embeddings 92

3. A procedural model of rationality 97

Computational dialectics 97
Reasoning as chaining of inferences 102
Forward and backward chaining rule-besed systems in artificial intelligence 105
The problem of enthymemes 111
Multiagent practical reasoning 115
Bounded rationality 120

4. Defeasible modus ponens arguments 122

A typical case of abductive reasoning in evdence law 122
Argumentation from consequences 129
Defeasible inferences and modus ponens 134
Conditionals and generalizations 138
Abductive inferences in medical diagnosis 143
Introducing defeasible modus ponens 147
Using defeasible modus ponens as an argumentation scheme 152

5. Abductive causal reasoning 158

Necessary and sufficient conditions 159
Forms of causal argumentation 163
Argument from correlation to cause 165
Abductive causal reasoning in law 169
Causal abduction in medical examination and diagnosis 175
Causal reasoning as dynamic improvement of a hypothesis 182
The thesis that causal reasoning is abductive 184
Causal explanations 188
The chain of reasoning in the accident case 191
Insights into causal argumentation yielded by the abductive theory 197

6. Query-driven abductive reasoning 206

Argument extrapolation by chaining forward 206
Colligation in chaining backward 209
The form of abductive inference revisited 214
Belief-desire-intention and commitment models 218
The abductive profile of dialogue 222
Abduction as a query-driven process 226
Discovery as an open process 229
Retraction of commitment 234
The four phases of abductive reasoning 239

7. Unsolved problems of abduction 243

Abduction and argumentation schemes 243
Enthymemes, argumentation schemes, and the defeadible modus ponens form of reasoning 248
The role of examination in science 252
Accounts and explanations 255
The problem of inconsistency 260
How abductive reasoning moves forward by examining competing accounts 263
Question-answering and critiquing systems in artificial intelligence 269
Summary of abduction as a heuristic 272

Notes 277
References 283
Index 295