『Phylogenetic Systematics: Haeckel to Hennig』

Olivier Rieppel

(2016年6月刊行,CRC Press [Series: Species and Systematics], Boca Raton, xxii+381 pp., ISBN:9781498754880 [hbk] → 版元ページ

Series Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Introduction and Preview xi
Author xxi

Chapter 1: The Evolutionary Turn in Comparative Anatomy 1

Carl Gegenbaur’s Idealistic Morphology 1
Haeckel’s Assault on Idealistic Morphology 12
The Gegenbaur Transformation 25

Chapter 2: Of Parts and Wholes 35

Beobachtung und Reflexion 35
Single Cause, Complex Effect 38
Levels and Modes of Individuality 41
Species, Individuals, History, and Reality 43
Changing Metaphors of Order in Nature: The Ladder, The Tree, and The Web 48
Monophyly: The Evolution of Species and Languages 56
Reaching Out Beyond Jena 61

Chapter 3: The Turn against Haeckel 67

The Poverty of Systematics 67
Hailing from the Hinterland 81
Logic Meets History 87
Plato’s Turntable 92
Biological Fragments Concerning an Understanding of Man 97
Limits of Scientific Knowledge 103

Chapter 4: The Rise of Holism in German Biology 107

The Cell State 107
The Struggle among the Parts 113
Glass Half Full or Half Empty? 119
Mechanics and Biology 127
Animal Psychology and Umwelt 135
The Congress in Prague 143

Chapter 5: The Rise of German ("Aryan") Biology 149

A Time of Crisis 149
The Rebirth of Science in a Goethean Spirit 152
Science in the Name of the Volk 168
Deutsche Biologie 176

Chapter 6: Ganzheitsbiologie 187

Enkapsis: Hierarchically Structured Complex Wholes 187
Bridging from Anatomy to Ecology 195
Singing the Praises of Forests and Lakes 197
Bringing Fossils to Life 217
Grotesquely Grandiose: The Evolutionary Synthesis in Völkisch Spirit 230

Chapter 7: The Ideological Instrumentalization of Biology 243

The Reconstruction of Ernst Haeckel 243
The Deconstruction of Ernst Lehmann 253
Pioneers of Phylogenetic Systematics: Their Battle against Idealistic Morphology 265

Chapter 8: A New Beginning: From Speciation to Phylogenetics 281

The Stresemann School 281
The Berlin School Branches Out to Dresden 292
Willi Hennig 297
A Prospectus for Phylogenetic Systematics 299

Chapter 9: Grundzüge: The Conceptual Foundations of Phylogenetic Systematics 303

Systematics ― “Speziesmacherei” or a True Science? 303
The Empirical Base of Phylogenetic Systematics 307
Phylogenetic Hierarchy 312
The Cladogram 316
Heterobathmy of Characters 320

Epilogue 323

Literature Cited 327
Index 371
Previously Published Books 381