『Describing Species: Practical Taxonomic Procedure for Biologists』

Judith E. Winston

(1999年10月刊行,Columbia University Press,ISBN:9780231068246 [hbk] / ISBN:9780231068253 [pbk] → 版元ページ

List of Illustrations xiii
List of Tables xvii
Preface xix

Part One: Introduction 1

Chapter 1. Introduction 3
Describing the Living World
Why Is Species Description Necessary?
How New Species Are Described
Scope and Organization of This Book
The Pleasures of Systematics

Chapter 2. Biological Nomenclature 19
Humans as Taxonomists
Biological Nomenclature
Folk Taxonomy
Binomial Nomenclature
Development of Codes of Nomenclature
The Current Codes of Nomenclature
Future of the Codes

Part Two: Recognizing Species 41

Chapter 3. Species and Their Discovery 43
Species Concepts
Processes Affecting Speciation
Taxonomic Characters
Examples of Ways in Which Biologists Have Discovered New Species

Chapter 4. Establishing Identity: The Literature Search 71
Mistakes and Bad Examples
Establishing Identity
Where to Find the Taxonomic Literature
How to Read the Taxonomic Literature
Species Descriptions
Taxonomic Literature Searching on the Internet

Chapter 5. Establishing Identity: Using Museum Collections 95
Collections, Museums, and Herbaria
Locating Material
Borrowing Material
Type Material
Visiting Collections: What to Expect and How to Behave
Cooperation with Systematists

Part Three: Writing Species Description 113

Chapter 6. Species Descriptions in Taxonomy 115
Reasons for Writing Species Descriptions
Different Kinds of Taxonomic Publications
Form of the Descriptive Paper

Chapter 7. Headings and Synonymies 129
Description Headings
New Species
Types of Synonymies
Terms Used in Synonymies
Different Kinds of Synonymies
References in Headings and Synonymies

Chapter 8. Naming Species: Etymology 147
Brief Review of Latin and Greek
Basic Rules of Species Names
Descriptive Species Names
Geographic Species Names
Commemorative Species Names
Nonsense Species Names
The Etymology Section

Chapter 9. Type and Voucher Material 173
Rationale for Types and Vouchers
Rules of Nomenclature Regarding Types
Selection of Types and Vouchers
Composition of Type Material
Documentation of Type Material
Deposition of Types
Type Section

Chapter 10. Diagnosis 189
What Is a Diagnosis?
Diagnosis in Zoological Taxonomy
Diagnosis in Botanical Taxonomy
What Is a Diagnostic Character?
The Diagnosis Section: Animals
The Diagnosis Section: Plants
Additional Uses for Diagnoses

Chapter 11. Description Section 201
Descriptive Writing
Information Used in the Description Section
Writing the Description
Telegraphic Style
The Description Section: Animals (Examples of Style for Different Groups)
The Description Section: Plants (Examples of Style for Different Groups)
Illustrating Taxonomic Descriptions

Chapter 12. Taxonomic Discussion Section 241
Purpose of the Discussion Section
Discussion in Descriptions of New Species
Evidence to Include
Composite Papers
The Discussion Section in Other Species Descriptions
Taxonomic Ethics

Chapter 13. The Ecology Section 261
Ecology in Species Descriptions
Analysis of Ecological Variation
Field Records: Getting the Most from Field Work
Ecological Information from Museum Specimens
The Ecology Section

Chapter 14. Occurrence and Distribution 277
Distributional Information in Species Descriptions
Parameters of Species Distributions
The Distribution Section
Distribution Papers

Chapter 15. Material Examined 293
Practical Value
In Original Description
In Other Descriptions
Material Examined Section
Material Examined: Botanical Taxonomy
The Material Examined Paper

Chapter 16. Publication 303
Criteria of Publication: Zoology
Criteria of Publication: Botany
Preparation of the Manuscript
Submission of the Manuscript
Final Revision and Publication
Journals That Publish Taxonomic Papers

Part Four: Beyond Species Description 321

Chapter 17. Subspecies 323
Why Are Subspecies Important?
Infraspecific Variation
Rules of Infraspecific Nomenclature: Zoology
Rules of Infraspecific Nomenclature: Botany
Deciding When to Name an Infraspecific Taxon
Writing Infraspecific Descriptions

Chapter 18. Genus-Level Description and Revision 337
The Genus Concept
When to Describe a New Genus
Generic Names
Publication of Generic Names
Generic Types
Examples of Generic-Level Description
Problems Caused by Generic Revision
Infrageneric Categories and Names

Chapter 19. Keys 367
Keys in Taxonomy
Key Characters
Single-Access (Analytical or Sequential) Keys
Multiaccess Keys (Polyclaves)
Interactive Identification
Key Construction
Computerized Key Construction

Chapter 20. Description of Higher Taxa 383
Family Concepts and Their Use in Taxonomy
Practical Significance in Biology
Describing Families
Family-Level Descriptions: Examples
Redescriptions of Family-Level Taxa
Descriptions of Taxa Above the Family Level
Problems with Nomenclature of Higher Taxa

Chapter 21. Common Problems 407
Missing Types
Necessary Name Changes
Replacement Names: Homonymy
Conservation of a Name
New Combinations
Lack of Information

Chapter 22. Further Studies in Systematics 433
Evolutionary Systematics
Molecular Systematics
Comparative Biology

Literature Cited 455
Subject Index 489
Author Index 503
Taxon Index 513